Как подарить акции на Новый год

Акции крупных компаний с сильными финансовыми показателями — это не только выгодная инвестиция, но и хороший подарок к Новому году. Какие бумаги не стыдно положить под елку?

Если вы хотите сделать необычный подарок близким на Новый год — можно подарить акции. Это оригинально и небесполезно. Это имущество, за ценой которого можно следить каждый день. Получателю подарка будет интересно отслеживать новости компании, бумагами которой он владеет, — теперь это будут не просто информационные сообщения в лентах новостей, а вехи развития в истории его актива. Может быть, это положит начало традиции инвестирования и станет первым шагом формирования инвестиционного портфеля на будущее. А может, просто познакомит человека поближе с современными финансовыми трендами и повысит его финансовую грамотность.

Важно понимать, что акции — это не какой-то исключительно электронный и невидимый актив. Это — доля в крупной компании, задокументированная собственность, которую при желании можно продать на бирже. Кроме того, акции можно отдать в залог по кредиту, передать по наследству и, наконец, подарить.

Правда, дарить акции — не во всех случаях юридически комфортно. Во-первых, нужно подготовить договор дарения (его образцы зачастую есть у брокеров, через которых можно купить акции) и дать поручение на перевод ценных бумаг тому, кому вы собираетесь дарить акции. Кроме того, у получателя такого подарка должен быть открыт брокерский (или депозитарный) счет, для чего он должен явиться в инвесткомпанию или отправить туда своего законного представителя — а значит, сделать именно сюрприз вряд ли получится. Также вместе с подарком его получатель получит обязанность заплатить налог — как правило, 13%. Причем в отличие от стандартных случаев брокерская компания налоговым агентом являться не будет, поэтому налоговую декларацию придется подавать самостоятельно.

Снизить всю эту административную нагрузку (за исключением необходимости открывать счет получателю подарка, а это возможно даже для ребенка — через законного представителя или кого-то из родителей) можно в двух случаях. Если вы дарите подарок близким родственникам, то составлять договор дарения и платить налоги не придется. Для подарков иным лицам можно избежать лишь налоговых последствий. Так, подарки от юридических лиц до 4000 руб. декларировать не требуется. Соответственно, если вы владеете компанией, подарок от ее лица будет существенно выгоднее для получателя. Еще один вариант — обратиться в брокерскую компанию с просьбой выписать подарочный сертификат на акции. Владелец такого сертификата может прийти в брокерскую компанию, открыть в ней счет и получить на него подаренные бумаги. Правда, предлагают такую услугу не все российские брокеры.

Какие же акции подарить родным и близким? Например, бумаги крупных международных корпораций — при условии, что они торгуются на российских площадках. В частности, с 2014 года на Санкт-Петербургской бирже доступны акции и депозитарные расписки более 200 глобальных компаний: от Ferrari для любителей скорости до Netflix и Starbucks для любителей сериалов и кофеманов. Уверен, вы без труда найдете причину подарить и акцию инновационной Tesla, гигантов Apple или Facebook или сделать любимого человека акционером «Газпрома».

Однако при выборе бумаги лучше изучить доступную аналитику по ней и ознакомиться с исторической динамикой акции. Так, в 2016 году акции Сбербанка показывали невероятный рост: если в начале января одна акция стоила 90 руб., то к 12 декабря она доросла до 175 руб. Также порадовал инвесторов «Аэрофлот», акции которого выросли за этот же период с 51 до 146 руб. Ценные бумаги «Газпрома» сумели удержать позиции в этом году и показывают небольшой рост (от 125 руб. в начале года до 150 руб. на текущий момент). Хорошую динамику показывают и акции Amazon, которые выросли с $600 в начале января до $768 в декабре, Facebook — с $97 до 119,68, Google — с $700 до 789.

При выборе акций также важно учитывать дивидендную доходность бумаги. Про дивиденды российских компаний за 2016 год пока говорить рано, но в 2015 году наибольшую прибыль получили акционеры «Сургутнефтегаза», «МегаФона» и компании «Протек» — около 20% относительно цены акций. Среди американских компаний, доступных на Санкт-Петербургской бирже, лучшую текущую дивидендную доходность показывают Ford Motor Company (6,45%) и Philip Morris International Inc. (4,54%).

При этом, несмотря на все преимущества акции как подарка, не стоит забывать о том, что это инвестиционный инструмент, который требует повышенного внимания и финансовой грамотности со стороны владельца. Даже самая стабильная акция может рано или поздно показать «просадку». О чем будет весьма нелишним предупредить получателя подарка. 

Источник: rbc.ru

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