Граждане обеспокоены невозможностью погасить старые долги

Граждане обеспокоены невозможностью погасить старые долги

Фото:
Олег Харсеев /
Коммерсантъ

На рынке взыскания создан прецедент — коллектор, купивший у банков большой объем долгов граждан, пропал. Позабытые должники радовались недолго, обратившись за новыми ссудами, они получили отказы — в их кредитных историях значатся долги перед пропавшим коллектором. Теперь уже они разыскивают агентство. Введение регулирования на коллекторском рынке подтолкнет часть компаний к уходу из бизнеса, и подобные истории могут повториться, отмечают эксперты.

Прецедент был создан коллекторским агентством «Морган» (входило в топ-10). В начале 2016 года компания прекратила свою деятельность (см. «Ъ» от 11 марта 2016 года). На тот момент, по оценкам участников рынка, у нее было порядка 500-700 тыс. кредитов на сумму более 20 млрд руб., купленных ранее у банков. Взыскание их прекратилось. Однако неожиданно должники сами вспомнили о кредиторе. «Мы регулярно получаем звонки должников компании «Морган», которые хотят погасить свой долг,— говорит директор Национальной ассоциации коллекторских агентств (НАПКА) Борис Воронин.— Люди ищут, куда внести платежи». С начала года в НАПКА, куда ранее входило это агентство, поступило более 50 обращений. По оценкам ассоциации, минимальное количество должников Morgan, у которых уже появилось желание вернуть долг и возникли проблемы с погашением,— около 5-7 тыс. человек.

Должники радовались пропаже коллектора, который перестал взыскивать с них долги, около года. «Забыв» о «Моргане» и приобретенных им кредитах, некоторые заемщики решили снова занять у банка. Тут-то и выяснилось, что старые долги никуда не делись, по крайней мере, из кредитных историй, а получить новую ссуду при наличии просрочки невозможно. По закону, с марта 2015 года все коллекторские агентства обязаны передавать информацию об обслуживаемых долгах в бюро кредитных историй (БКИ). Данные о кредитах хранятся в БКИ десять лет.

Разыскать коллектора самостоятельно у должников не вышло. «Морган» юридически существует, однако физически компания деятельность не ведет, а номера ее телефонов не действуют. Вернуть долг оказалось некому. По информации «Ъ», свои долги продавали в разное время компании «Морган» ОТП-банк, Райффайзенбанк, «Ренессанс кредит», Росбанк и др. В большинстве банков не стали комментировать ситуацию. Однако в пресс-службе ОТП-банка «Ъ» подтвердили факт уступки прав требований компании «Морган». После продажи долга банк может по запросу должника сообщить размер задолженности на дату перехода права, пояснили там.

Но эксперты указывают, что выход из ситуации есть. «Должники «Моргана» могут обратиться к нотариусу и внести оставшуюся сумму долга в нотариальный депозит, таким образом погасив его»,— поясняет партнер юридической компании «Юрпартнеръ» Александр Федоров. Член методической комиссии Федеральной нотариальной палаты Илья Радченко подтвердил, что если у гражданина есть обязанность по уплате средств, а надлежащий кредитор отсутствует, с момента внесения должником денег в депозит нотариуса его обязательства считаются исполненными. «По просьбе клиента нотариус выдает квитанцию или справку о внесении денежных средств, с которой гражданин может обратиться в БКИ для исправления кредитной истории»,— говорит он. При этом законом не установлен срок хранения денег в депозите нотариуса. В любой момент до их получения кредитором гражданин может обратиться к нотариусу с заявлением о возврате средств, говорит Илья Радченко. Таким образом, теоретически можно погасить долг, исправить историю и забрать деньги обратно.

Впрочем, не исключено, что возвращать долги все же придется. По словам участников рынка, часть цессионного портфеля «Морган» уже приобрело одно из действующих коллекторских агентств. Не исключено, что со временем найдется наследник и оставшегося портфеля. «Пока компания юридически существует, она, являясь держателем портфеля, в любой момент может вспомнить о долге, продолжить взыскание через коллекторов, которые состоят в официальном реестре, или продать его»,— говорит член совета директоров «Секвойя кредит консолидейшн» Елена Докучаева.

Пока история «Морган» — уникальна, но повторение возможно. С введением в этом году регулирования коллекторского рынка он сузится — часть компаний покинет его, поскольку не готовы работать в новых реалиях, отмечают участники рынка. При этом небольшие портфели могут быть забыты, поскольку найти на них покупателей оперативно довольно сложно.

Источник: kommersant.ru

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