Качество кредитов восстановится не раньше 2020 года

Качество кредитов восстановится не раньше 2020 года

Фото:
Александр Щербак /

Коммерсантъ

Пик просроченной задолженности в российском банковском секторе пройден, однако восстановление качества активов произойдет не раньше 2020 года, прогнозирует рейтинговое агентство АКРА. Не смогут вернуться банки в ближайшие годы и к докризисным темпам роста активов.

В исследовании, посвященном прогнозам развития банковской системы до 2020 года, агентство АКРА отмечает, что в 2016 году банки прошли пик роста просроченной задолженности во всех сегментах банковского кредитования. С учетом реструктуризации объем проблемной задолженности в российском банковском секторе составил около 15%. «По мере восстановления кредитных портфелей ее уровень на балансах банков будет постепенно снижаться. Однако, по нашим оценкам, восстановление кредитного качества и выход просроченной задолженности на докризисный уровень возможны не ранее 2020 года»,— прогнозируют аналитики агентства.

Медленным и постепенным будет и возвращение к докризисным темпам кредитования. По данным Банка России, в 2016 году объем кредитов физлицам увеличился на 1,1%, кредитов компаниям — сократился на 9,5% за год. Уже в 2017 году банки с высокой вероятностью пойдут на повышение риск-аппетитов, ослабив требования к заемщикам, полагают в АКРА. Послабления в основном коснутся сегмента ипотечного кредитования, которое останется ключевым драйвером роста в рознице и в 2017 году. В 2016 году ипотека была единственным растущим сегментом, за счет прироста объема кредитов в нем на 6% розничное кредитование в целом вышло в плюс.

Восстановятся положительные темпы роста и в других сегментах розничного кредитования, уверены в АКРА. Прирост в необеспеченном потребительском кредитовании будет слабым — около 5-7%, в том числе вследствие восстановления повышенного коэффициента (110%) для учета необеспеченных ссуд при расчете активов, взвешенных по уровню риска. В 2016 году объем необеспеченных потребительских ссуд, по данным ЦБ, сократился на 3,1% за год. В 2017 году АКРА ожидает позитивной динамики и в сегменте автокредитования, который вырастет на 8-10% в результате повышения спроса на автомобили отечественной сборки (стареет существующий парк), а также снижения ставки по кредитам, в том числе в рамках госпрограмм субсидирования. Сегмент корпоративного кредитования, по оценкам АКРА, покажет в 2017 году рост 6-8%.

Эксперты не разделяют столь оптимистичных прогнозов. «Ослабление требований к заемщикам вряд ли будет оправданным,— полагает главный экономист ПФ «Капитал» Евгений Надоршин.— Статистика показывает, что финансовое положение существенной части населения не улучшается». Скорее всего, рост в секторе необеспеченного кредитования будет в рамках погрешности, возможно, за счет реструктуризации и рефинансирования существующих ссуд, аналогичная ситуация и в корпоративном секторе, продолжает эксперт. По его мнению, сомнительным выглядит и прогнозируемый рост кредитования. «Потребность населения в покупке автомобилей снижается, в первую очередь в больших городах, в связи с тем, что активно развиваются каршеринг и такси,— поясняет он.— Единственный сегмент, где рост вероятен,— это ипотека, в том числе поскольку ставки становятся все более привлекательными».

Источник: kommersant.ru

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