Кредиторам разрешили звонить должникам на работу

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Кредиторам разрешили звонить должникам на работу

Фото:
Евгений Дудин /
Коммерсантъ

Суд признал право кредиторов и иных взыскателей звонить на рабочий телефон заемщика при условии, что информация о долге разглашаться не будет. Главным аргументом в пользу кредитора при рассмотрении дела стала запись переговоров. Документальных контраргументов у должника и его коллег не нашлось. По мнению правозащитников, заемщики находятся в уязвимом положении, поскольку обеспечить запись неожиданного звонка по рабочему телефону практически невозможно.

На днях был обнародован текст решения Арбитражного суда Вологодской области, которое закрепило возможность для кредиторов и взыскателей звонить на рабочий номер должника. Сам факт звонков на рабочий телефон нельзя расценивать как взаимодействие с иными лицами, если при этом не была разглашена информация о долге или иные персональные данные, следует из решения суда. При этом кредитор должен иметь возможность подтвердить с помощью записи переговоров, что разглашения частной информации не было.

Такое решение суда идет вразрез с позицией Банка России. Как следует из материалов дела, заемщица кредитного потребительского кооператива (КПК) «Илма» Ирина Тарасова обратилась в Роспотребнадзор с жалобой на действия кредитора, который, чтобы добиться погашения задолженности, звонил по ее рабочему номеру и разговаривал с ее коллегой. Роспотребнадзор перенаправил жалобу в ЦБ. Там сочли, что действия кредитора нарушают нормы закона о взыскании долгов физлиц (230-ФЗ).

Согласно ст. 4 230-ФЗ, кредитор или лицо, действующее от его имени, вправе взаимодействовать с должником, используя личные встречи, телефонные переговоры, телеграфные сообщения, текстовые, голосовые и иные сообщения, передаваемые по сетям электросвязи, почтовые отправления. Иные способы взаимодействия могут быть предусмотрены письменным соглашением между должником и кредитором.

По словам заемщицы, ни она сама, ни ее коллега согласия на подобное взаимодействие не давали. В ЦБ посчитали, что раз коллега Тарасовой не является заемщиком или лицом, предоставившим обеспечение по договору займа, кредитор не вправе был осуществлять с ней взаимодействие по вопросам взыскания задолженности Ирины Тарасовой, и оштрафовали КПК на 50 тыс. руб. КПК с такой позицией не согласился и оспорил штраф в суде. Доводом в пользу кредитора стал тот факт, что заемщица в анкете указала номер рабочего телефона и звонивший по нему сотрудник не мог знать, что к телефону подойдет иное лицо. Кооператив представил суду записи телефонных разговоров, из которых следует, что сотрудник кооператива попросил Ирину Тарасову к телефону, при этом данных о займе и его сумме не сообщал, как и не говорил, что является представителем КПК. Суд принял эти доводы и встал на сторону кредитора, хотя заемщица и ее коллега настаивали на том, что в разговоре сотрудник КПК представился и сообщил, что звонит по поводу долга Ирины Тарасовой. Впрочем, каких-либо доказательств заемщица и ее коллега предъявить не смогли.

Кредиторы рассчитывают, что данное решение устоит, и тогда рабочий телефон заемщика можно будет без опасений использовать для контакта с ним. «Решение первой инстанции необязательно будет окончательным, вполне возможно, представители ЦБ отстоят свою позицию в вышестоящих инстанциях,— отмечает генеральный директор сервиса онлайн-займов «Робот Займер» Сергей Седов.— Кроме того, многое зависит от того, каким образом заемщик указал контактные данные». Эксперты отмечают, что не последнюю роль в данном споре сыграла запись телефонных переговоров. «Ранее кредиторы в аналогичных спорах чаще проигрывали,— отметил глава СРО МИР Андрей Паранич.— Однако в данном случае именно запись переговоров помогла доказать правоту кредитора».

Правозащитники уверены, что в подобных спорах заемщики находятся в уязвимом положении. «Я бы не доверял записям звонков, которые предоставляют кредиторы и взыскатели,— отмечает председатель правления Международной конфедерации обществ потребления Дмитрий Янин.— Нельзя исключить возможность того, что недобросовестный кредитор «отредактирует» звуковой файл». При этом заемщики, как правило, сами не записывают разговоры, и еще сложнее ожидать, что переговоры по рабочему телефону запишет случайный коллега, отмечает он. Господин Янин рекомендует заемщикам, не готовым делиться с коллегами и другими лицами информацией о долговых обязательствах, пользоваться правом на отказ от вербального общения, тем самым обезопасив себя от ненужных звонков, в том числе и на рабочие номера.

Источник: kommersant.ru

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