Микрофинансовые организации творчески обошли закон о коллекторах

Микрофинансовые организации творчески обошли закон о коллекторах

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Микрофинансовые организации (МФО) придумали, как обойти одно из главных требований антиколлекторского закона — не беспокоить должника в ночное время. Они сообщают клиентам о новых продуктах и услугах, дополняя сообщения информацией о необходимости погасить задолженность. Формально ночное общение с должниками под видом рекламных предложений законом не ограничено, но ЦБ уже привлек к ответственности за такую деятельность крупнейшее МФО «Домашние деньги».

На днях Арбитражный суд города Москвы зарегистрировал заявление крупнейшего МФО «Домашние деньги» с требованием признать незаконным решение ЦБ о привлечении к ответственности. «Данным заявлением оспаривается постановление отделения по Пензенской области Волго-Вятского ГУ ЦБ от 26 декабря 2016 года, которым обществу назначено наказание в виде штрафа в размере 50 тыс. руб. за направление заемщику сообщений за пределами установленного для взаимодействия времени»,— сообщили в пресс-службе «Домашних денег». Однако в компании своей вины не признают, отмечая, что действовали в рамках закона, так как «взаимодействие осуществлялось не с целью взыскания задолженности, а с целью предложения новых продуктов». Связь с заемщиком в ночное время в компании объясняют «техническими особенностями отправки MMS-сообщений».

В ЦБ сообщили, что такие нарушения носят массовый характер. «В Банк России поступают жалобы от граждан на совершение МФО действий, направленных на возврат задолженности по договорам микрозайма, куда в том числе входят жалобы на звонки в неурочное время. В 2016 году в Банк России поступило более 5 тыс. подобных жалоб, а в январе—феврале 2017 года — около 800,— сообщили в пресс-службе ЦБ.— В случае выявления в действиях МФО признаков нарушения положений антиколлекторского закона документы направляются в Федеральную службу судебных приставов».

С 1 января 2017 года МФО не вправе взаимодействовать с заемщиком с целью взыскания просроченной задолженности с 22 до 8 утра по будням и с 20 до 9 утра в выходные и праздничные дни. За нарушение данного порядка — штраф до 200 тыс. руб. «При этом федеральными законами о рекламе и о связи не установлено каких-либо временных ограничений для рекламных SMS-рассылок»,— отмечает управляющий директор сервиса онлайн-кредитования «Е заем» Лига Трупа.

О новом способе взаимодействия с заемщиками — требование погашения долга под видом рекламы новых продуктов — на рынке знают. «Отдельные МФО, пытаясь обойти введение законом ограничения, под любым предлогом, включая предложение новых услуг, общаются с должниками во внеурочное время с одной целью — добиться возврата просроченной задолженности,— рассказывает независимый член совета СРО «Мир» Александр Арифов.— И эта тенденция набирает обороты». При этом сам клиент, как правило, при получении займа дает МФО согласие и на получение рекламных рассылок, указывает юрист союза по защите прав потребителей финансовых услуг «Финпотребсоюз» Алексей Драч. «Пока есть согласие клиента на такое информирование, МФО формально закон не нарушает»,— уточняет он. А основания для жалоб в ЦБ есть. «Если в сообщениях или звонках о новой услуге одновременно упоминается возврат старого долга, то клиент может посчитать взаимодействие направленным на взыскание задолженности и подать жалобу в ЦБ»,— указывает господин Драч.

Впрочем, в отдельных случаях ночная реклама может быть не по вине МФО. «Обычно МФО делают SMS-рассылки через специальный сервис у операторов связи,— рассказывает гендиректор сервиса онлайн-займов «Робот Займер» Сергей Седов.— Программа формирует SMS для конкретного абонента с учетом часового пояса его проживания, клиент получает уведомления только в определенное время». «Задержки в доставке SMS иногда случаются и зависят от текущей нагрузки сотовых сетей и SMS-шлюза SMS-провайдера»,— сообщила Лига Трупа. «Но это единичные случаи»,— отмечает Александр Арифов. «По решению суда мы можем сообщить время отправки и доставки сообщений»,— заявили в пресс-службе МТС.

Суд без труда установит суть ночного взаимодействия МФО с клиентом, и можно будет однозначно утверждать, было ли сообщение рекламным или содержало информацию о взыскании задолженности, уверен управляющий партнер АБ «Дмитрий Матвеев и партнеры» Дмитрий Матвеев. Впрочем, судя по подходу ЦБ, такая практика просуществует недолго, уверены эксперты. «Крупные игроки не будут увлекаться подобным — велики репутационные риски»,— считает гендиректор МФО «Быстроденьги» Юрий Провкин.

Источник: kommersant.ru

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