На борьбу с безнадежными долгами бросили НДФЛ

На борьбу с безнадежными долгами бросили НДФЛ

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Виктор Коротаев /
Коммерсантъ

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Новый порядок уплаты налога на доходы физлиц (НДФЛ) открыл перед микрофинансовыми организациями (МФО) дополнительные возможности взыскания проблемных долгов. При списании долга у заемщика возникает доход, из-за высоких процентов МФО НДФЛ на него может быть гораздо больше исходной суммы займа. Раньше такой доход заемщик должен был декларировать сам, чего часто не происходило, теперь ФНС ведет учет автоматически. По безнадежным долгам возврат первоначальных инвестиций уже хороший результат для МФО, поэтому они готовы урегулировать долг за сумму, меньшую потенциального размера НДФЛ.

Новый порядок уплаты НДФЛ применяется в отношении доходов, полученных в 2016 году и далее. Налоги за прошлый год граждане должны уплатить до 1 декабря 2017 года. Доходы, полученные (в результате списания долга) до 2016 года, заемщик должен был самостоятельно задекларировать и уплатить налог до 15 июля следующего года. С 2016 года порядок изменился — декларировать ничего не нужно: налоговая инспекция, получив информацию от кредитора, сама направит налоговое уведомление. Казалось бы, для МФО в данном случае ничего не поменялось. Списание долгов происходило и ранее, и возникающий при этом у должника доход в виде «экономической выгоды — в виде экономии на расходах по возврату сумм основного долга и/или процентов» также облагался НДФЛ по ставке 13%. Так, по данным ФНС, за 2015 год 379 тыс. человек уплатили налог с такого рода доходов на сумму 6,83 млрд руб.

Однако микрофинансисты подошли к налоговым новациям неожиданно ответственно и в рамках работы с клиентами по «повышению финансовой грамотности» информируют о них своих должников. МФО поясняют неплательщику налоговые последствия, которые возникнут при списании долга. И пояснения эти более чем впечатляют.

Так, в МФК «Займер» приводят пример расчета для займа на 10 тыс. руб. сроком на неделю, который клиент взял в 2014 году и не вернул. В сентябре 2014 года (ЦБ начал рассчитывать ПСК) среднерыночная процентная ставка для потребительского микрозайма на срок до одного месяца в сумме до 30 тыс. руб. составляла 686,089% годовых. Если МФО не применяла пеней и штрафов, через три года (именно через такой срок можно списать долг как безнадежный к взысканию) задолженность составит 215,8 тыс. руб. (10 тыс. руб.— тело долга плюс 205,8 тыс. руб.— проценты). При списании такого долга налог составит 28 тыс. руб.

Если ранее уплата налога на доходы от списания долгов фактически была дана на откуп гражданам, то в связи с новым порядком, применяемым ФНС, забыть о долге не удастся. А к налоговым требованиям население традиционно относится серьезнее, чем к долгам МФО. «Граждане помнят о мерах принуждения к уплате налога со стороны ИФНС, таких как принудительное списание задолженности, запрет на выезд за границу и т. д.»,— говорит партнер АБ «Коблев и партнеры» Кирилл Бельский.

Благодаря разъяснениям налоговая угроза в глазах должников становится вполне реальной. И тут МФО может проявить гибкость и предложить урегулировать долг за сумму меньшую, чем потенциальный налог. Таким образом кредитор вернет как минимум первоначальные инвестиции, чего при продаже долга сделать невозможно (долги продаются с дисконтом). По словам финансового директора компании «Е заем» Мамуки Ризаева, расчет потенциального налога можно использовать как один из аргументов, чтобы убедить клиента вернуть хотя бы что-то. При этом, чтобы использовать этот аргумент, ждать три года необязательно. «Для тех заемщиков, у кого возможная сумма НДФЛ может быть существенной в случае списания долга, предложение пойти на мировое соглашение и погасить задолженность в меньшем объеме, чем НДФЛ, работает порой уже с третьего месяца просрочки»,— отмечает гендиректор МФО «Честное слово» Андрей Петков. МФО может обратиться в суд при наличии просрочки в любой момент.

Впрочем, на практике МФО долги списывают редко. «Если при информировании о возможности признания долга безнадежным и необходимости уплаты НДФЛ заемщику не сообщают о сроках списания, это может быть расценено как намеренное введение в заблуждение»,— предупреждает главный исполнительный директор МФО «Домашние деньги» Андрей Бахвалов.

Источник: kommersant.ru

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