Новые долги помогают гражданам обслуживать старые

Новые долги помогают гражданам обслуживать старые

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Александр Вайнштейн /
Коммерсантъ

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53% заемщиков в прошлом году брали кредиты для погашения своих долгов. При этом, по словам экспертов, далеко не всегда рефинансирование проводится в целях снижения ставок по сравнению с первоначальными. Многие заемщики просто не могут расплатиться по текущим долгам, и рефинансирование для них единственная возможность продолжать обслуживать кредиты.

Объединенное кредитное бюро (ОКБ, входит в топ-3 БКИ) проанализировало цели получения кредитов наличными (по данным 45 млн граждан с действующими кредитами). В прошлом году 53% (более 4,7 млн) из тех, кто брал новые кредиты, делали это для погашения задолженности по уже имеющимся долгам. Самый высокий показатель наблюдался в декабре 2016 года — 58%. При этом 27% заемщиков направляли на погашение старого долга более половины суммы нового кредита. За последние пять лет доля заемщиков, направляющих кредиты на рефинансирование имеющихся долгов, выросла в полтора раза с 37% в 2012 году.

В 2016 году средний размер кредита для целей рефинансирования составил 126 тыс. руб. против 101 тыс. руб. в 2015 году. При этом 42% заемщиков на момент получения нового кредита наличными имели один открытый кредит, 51% — два, 60% — три кредита, 65% — четыре, 71% — пять и более. «Существует прямая корреляция между количеством открытых кредитов и платежной дисциплиной. Среди заемщиков с одним кредитом только 12% допускают просрочку платежей более 30 дней, а среди заемщиков с пятью и более кредитами таких более 40%,— отмечает гендиректор ОКБ Даниэль Зеленский.— В ситуации падения реальных доходов населения «серийные заемщики» первыми попадают в группу риска». По его словам, сейчас около 7,7 млн человек имеют три и более открытых кредита и в среднем тратят на ежемесячные платежи по ним более 80 тыс. руб.

Опрошенные «Ъ» банкиры, уверяют, что отбирают при рефинансировании качественных заемщиков. «На фоне снижения ставок на рынке спрос на рефинансирование увеличился за последние полгода, у многих заемщиков появилась возможность снизить долговую нагрузку»,— говорит руководитель направления разработки кредитных продуктов Бинбанка Светлана Гордеева. По данным ЦБ, среднерыночное значение полной стоимости потребительских кредитов (ПСК) в четвертом квартале 2016 год (ориентир для выдачи кредитов во втором квартале 2017 года) по кредитам наличными от 100 тыс. руб. до 300 тыс. руб. на срок от года составило 18,15%, против 22,45% в 2015 году. По словам члена правления ВТБ Владимира Верхошинского, группа ВТБ (банки ВТБ и ВТБ 24) ежемесячно рефинансирует потребительские кредиты на сумму более 10 млрд руб., это примерно от 20% до 30% выдач. «Мы рефинансируем, безусловно, не всех заемщиков, в обязательном порядке проводится скорринг, большое количество действующих кредитов и высокая закредитованность являются негативными факторами при принятии решения о предоставлении кредита»,— отметил он. По словам госпожи Гордеевой, в целом по рынку программы рефинансирования рассчитаны на тех, у кого не более трех-четырех действующих кредитов, если же у человека их пять и более, то рефинансировать их будет проблематично.

Несмотря на осторожность банкиров, высокая доля новых кредитов, направляемых на рефинансирование, несет в себе риски. «Пока динамика доходов населения не начнет уверенно расти, активность банков в сфере розничного кредитования связана с повышенными рисками,— указывает главный экономист «ПФ-Капитала» Евгений Надоршин.— Приличное количество граждан, даже с номинально растущей зарплатой, могут оказаться в положении, когда начнут испытывать сложности в обслуживании кредита даже по пониженной ставке».

Источник: kommersant.ru

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