Новые стандарты работы могут отсеять более половины участников рынка

Новые стандарты работы могут отсеять более половины участников рынка

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Юрий Мартьянов /
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В ближайшем будущем микрофинансовым организациям (МФО) придется работать в условиях жестких ограничений. Саморегулируемые организации (СРО) МФО уже подготовили и представили на согласование ЦБ стандарты по рискам и защите прав клиентов, после утверждения регулятором они станут обязательными для исполнения. По оценкам экспертов, описанные в них нормы смогут выполнить менее половины игроков.

По информации “Ъ”, вчера комитет по стандартам Банка России рассмотрел базовые стандарты МФО. Их внедрение предусмотрено 223-ФЗ «О саморегулируемых организациях в сфере финансового рынка». После окончательного утверждения ЦБ эти стандарты станут обязательными для всех участников рынка. Всего таких стандартов будет три: защиты прав и интересов клиентов МФО, управления рисками и совершения операций на финансовом рынке. Вчера, по словам собеседников “Ъ”, в ЦБ были представлены первые два стандарта. “Ъ” удалось ознакомиться с их проектами.

Для самих МФО наиболее критичным может стать стандарт управления рисками. Согласно ему, они должны будут внедрить систему управления рисками, их контроль и оценку. Компаниям с портфелем займов от 1 млрд руб., а также микрофинансовым компаниям (МФК, с капиталом от 70 млн руб.) необходимо будет создать самостоятельные структурные подразделения по управлению рисками. Сейчас системно управляют рисками лишь крупные игроки, небольшие зачастую обходятся визуальной оценкой клиента, отмечают участники рынка. «Таким компаниям придется инвестировать в управление рисками, причем весомые для них суммы — от 3 млн до 5 млн руб.»,— говорит управляющий директор «Е займа» Лига Трупа. По словам гендиректора МФК «Мани Фанни» Александра Шустова, введение стандарта приведет к отсеиванию наиболее слабых компаний. «Скорее всего, из почти 2,5 тыс. МФО около 1,5 тыс. не смогут соответствовать стандарту»,— резюмирует главный исполнительный директор МФО «Домашние деньги» Андрей Бахвалов.

Впрочем, сужение рынка вряд ли окажет существенное влияние на доступность займов. В глобальном смысле наибольшее значение имеет стандарт защиты клиентов. Микрофинансовый рынок по числу жалоб, получаемых от граждан ЦБ, уступает лишь страховому. По данным ЦБ, в 2016 году на микрокредиторов поступило около 13 тыс. жалоб. Именно этот стандарт ЦБ намерен утвердить в первую очередь. «Ожидается, что первый базовый стандарт (по защите прав и интересов клиентов.— “Ъ”) в сфере МФО будет утвержден в ближайшее время»,— сообщили в пресс-службе Банка России.

Данный стандарт налагает на МФО существенные ограничения. В частности, МФО не сможет выдать в одни руки более 10 краткосрочных займов (на срок не более 30 календарных дней) в течение одного года. Пролонгация краткосрочных займов будет возможна не более семи раз (за исключением пролонгации на срок не более двух дней). Эти требования будут ужесточаться. В стандарте записано, что с 1 января 2019 года заемщик не сможет получить в одной МФО более девяти займов за год и пролонгировать их более пяти раз. Для контроля качества обслуживания клиентов вводится обязанность фиксировать и хранить записи переговоров с клиентами не менее шести месяцев. Срок рассмотрения жалоб не должен превышать 15 рабочих дней.

Сейчас принципиальными ограничениями для МФО являются полная стоимость кредита, максимальная сумма долга — с учетом процентов и штрафов она не может превышать трехкратного размера первоначальной суммы займа. Требования стандарта гораздо жестче. Но участники рынка считают их оправданными. «Ограничения по выдаче займов в одни руки и их пролонгации — необходимые меры, которые позволят сократить число случаев, когда человек перегружен долгом и не может расплатиться»,— отмечает Андрей Бахвалов. Регламентация работы с жалобами также необходима. «Бывает, что клиент запрашивает у МФО информацию и не может ее получить,— говорит заместитель директора СРО МФО МиР Андрей Паранич.— Стандарт четко прописывает сроки ответов, обязанность предоставить копии документов».

Базовые стандарты обязательны для исполнения членами СРО. «СРО вправе применять в отношении своих членов меры ответственности за несоблюдение базовых стандартов»,— сообщили “Ъ” в ЦБ. Неисполнение грозит МФО предписаниями об устранении нарушений, штрафами, исключением из СРО. Вне СРО МФО может работать не более 90 дней, потом ей грозит исключение из реестра ЦБ — по факту запрет на деятельность.

Источник: kommersant.ru

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