Потребительские кредиты подешевеют не для всех

Потребительские кредиты подешевеют не для всех

Фото:
Олег Харсеев /

Коммерсантъ

Оживления потребительского кредитования в ближайшее время, вероятно, ждать не придется. ЦБ снизил для банков минимальный уровень полной стоимости кредита (ПСК), при котором применяются повышенные коэффициенты риска. В результате выдавать кредиты с полной стоимостью выше 35% годовых для банков теперь нерентабельно. Но потенциальным заемщикам радоваться рано: по сравнительно низким ставкам кредиты получат лишь супернадежные клиенты. А вот число отказов тем, кто мог бы рассчитывать на кредиты по более высоким ставкам, вырастет.

Вчера Банк России сообщил об изменении шкалы коэффициентов риска по потребительским кредитам, выданным с 1 марта 2017 года. Проект изменений был опубликован в феврале (см. «Ъ» от 6 февраля). С тех пор банкиры надеялись убедить регулятора не вводить ужесточений. Последняя попытка была предпринята примерно неделю назад. По словам источников «Ъ», около 20 крупнейших участников рынка потребкредитования направили в ЦБ письмо, в котором изложили свое несогласие с изменением взвешивания рисков. «Если коротко, то банковское сообщество пытается донести до ЦБ, что такой подход приведет не к снижению рисков, а к давлению на капитал и ограничению кредитования»,— говорит один из собеседников «Ъ».

Ответ ЦБ дал вчера. «В настоящее время этот документ находится на регистрации в Министерстве юстиции Российской Федерации…— отмечается в сообщении ЦБ.— Сохранение предыдущей шкалы коэффициентов риска означало бы ослабление регулятивных требований». По словам партнера «Ионцев, Ляховский и партнеры» Игоря Дубова, в Минюст документ направляется, когда уже принят ЦБ и прошел все стадии согласования. Таким образом, регулятор поставил точку в дискуссии с банкирами. В Банке России не ответили на запрос «Ъ».

ПСК включает все обязательные платежи по кредиту. В зависимости от уровня ПСК кредиты учитываются при расчете достаточности капитала банков с определенным коэффициентом риска. Сейчас рублевые кредиты с ПСК 25-35% взвешиваются с коэффициентом 1,1, с ПСК 35-45% — 1,4, с ПСК 45-60% — 3, от 60% действует запретительный коэффициент 6. Новый диапазон: коэффициент 1,1 при ПСК 20-25%, 1,4 — 25-30%, 3 — 30-35% и 6 — для кредитов с ПСК свыше 35%.

Борьбу за сохранение действующих условий банкиры ведут с прошлого года. О планах сдвинуть вниз диапазон ПСК для потребительских ссуд, при котором применяются повышенные коэффициенты риска, ЦБ объявил в ноябре 2016 года. Хотя тогда речь шла о гораздо менее жестких изменениях, банкиры высказались против. Было проведено несколько встреч с ЦБ, но понимания достигнуто не было, появился даже более жесткий вариант, об утверждении которого вчера и сообщил ЦБ, говорит собеседник «Ъ» из числа крупных банков. «Мы надеялись, что ЦБ прислушается к мнению рынка, у банков просто нет излишков капитала, чтобы кредитовать заемщиков даже со средним уровнем риска при новом подходе»,— добавляет другой источник «Ъ». «Суперхороших клиентов не так много, и не все они хотят брать кредиты, а те, кто хотели, в основном уже взяли. Есть менее надежные — те, кому можно было бы дать кредит под больший процент, но при таких коэффициентах риска это слишком большая нагрузка на капитал,— продолжает собеседник «Ъ».— Складывается впечатление, что ЦБ просто не хочет допустить оживления потребительского кредитования».

А вот банки как раз готовы начать кредитовать. Согласно данным ЦБ, рынок потребительского кредитования показывал отрицательную динамику два года подряд (в 2016 году объем необеспеченных розничных ссуд сократился на 3,1%, в 2015-м — на 12,4%). Рейтинговое агентство АКРА прогнозировало повышение риск-аппетитов банков и ослабление требований к заемщикам, что могло бы обеспечить рост в потребительском кредитовании 5-7% в 2017 году (см. «Ъ» от 27 февраля). «Сейчас в целом на рынке есть ощущение, что ситуация стабилизировалась и можно постепенно возвращаться к докризисным требованиям к заемщикам, то есть повышать риск-аппетит и выходить на аудиторию, которая готова кредитоваться по более высоким ставкам»,— говорит начальник отдела портфельного риск-анализа Альфа-банка Сергей Турищев. Однако, по его мнению, ЦБ со своей стороны дает рынку сигнал, что стремление кредитовать с высоким уровнем риска и компенсировать риск ценой должно быть обеспечено собственным капиталом, что неприемлемо для банкиров с позиции бизнес-модели, предполагающей использование существенного финансового рычага.

Таким образом, оттепель на рынке потребительских кредитов не наступит, кредиты будут доступны все тем же заемщикам, но по более низким ставкам, а остальным придется обходиться своими силами, заключают участники рынка.

Источник: kommersant.ru

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