Против односторонних действий МФО выступил Роспотребнадзор

Против односторонних действий МФО выступил Роспотребнадзор

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Анатолий Жданов /
Коммерсантъ

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Заемщики микрофинансовых организаций (МФО) получили поддержку со стороны Роспотребнадзора, который выступил против одностороннего изменения способов погашения займов. Такая практика — распространенное явление, и отказываться от нее микрофинансисты не хотят, ссылаясь на риск внезапного прекращения отношений с контрагентами, принимающими платежи. Однако для заемщиков неожиданная смена способа погашения может быть чревата существенным ростом долга, отмечают эксперты, поддерживая Роспотребнадзор.

На днях было обнародовано постановление 10-го арбитражного апелляционного суда, который признал законным наложенный Роспотребнадзором штраф на МФО «Джет Мани Микрофинанс». Роспотребнадзор оштрафовал компанию на 10 тыс. руб. Основанием стало наличие в договорах займа оговорки о возможности изменения способов погашения (а именно перечня операторов по приему платежей) компанией в одностороннем порядке. Роспотребнадзор указал, что по закону «О потребительском кредите» способы погашения займа являются неотъемлемой частью договора, при этом изменение условий договора с потребителем в одностороннем порядке не допускается. «Джет Мани» пыталась оспорить штраф в суде и в первой инстанции проиграла. Апелляция поддержала решение первой инстанции, таким образом, оно вступило в силу.

Несмотря на небольшую сумму штрафа, для МФО было принципиально оспорить факт нарушения. «В ситуации, когда между клиентом и МФО стоит оператор платежей, мы можем лишь гарантировать, что на момент заключения договора займа были актуальны данные способы платежа,— отмечает исполнительный директор МФО «Джет Мани» Антон Рожковский.— Однако они могут измениться вне зависимости от желания МФО, например, из-за прекращения оказания услуг по приему платежей по инициативе оператора или изменения им тарифной политики».

На микрофинансовом рынке изменение способов погашения долга в одностороннем порядке — распространенная практика. Многие МФО меняли и меняют операторов платежей, в том числе и по текущим договорам, и ранее претензий к ним по данному вопросу не возникало, отмечает гендиректор «Вдолг.ру» Антон Тарасов. «При взаимодействии с операторами приема платежей кредитор оказывается в зависимом положении,— поясняет гендиректор компании «Робот Займер» Сергей Седов.— Большинство платежных систем определяют комиссию за проведение платежа в индивидуальном порядке, а также в клиентских договорах оставляют за собой право изменять тарифы в одностороннем порядке и отказывать в обслуживании без объяснения причин».

Роспотребнадзор намерен изучить рыночную практику и добиться устранения нарушений. «Часто встречаются случаи, когда у кредиторов повторяются одни и те же нарушения даже по тем ситуациям, когда уже сформирована положительная судебная практика в пользу их клиентов,— отметил начальник управления защиты прав потребителей Роспотребнадзора Олег Прусаков.— Будем проверять участников рынка, в случае выявления нарушений — привлекать к ответственности».

МФО считают, что ответственность в данном случае лежит не на них, а на операторах по приему платежей. «Если в изменении состава операторов есть нарушение прав заемщиков, то и тем же самым операторам платежей необходимо запретить в одностороннем порядке расторжение договоров с МФО, так как это в конечном счете нарушит права заемщиков»,— отметил независимый член совета СРО «МиР» Александр Арифов.

Однако операторы платежей с таким подходом не согласны. «В договорах, заключаемых с МФО, предусмотрена возможность расторжения в одностороннем порядке,— отметили в пресс-службе «Золотой короны».— Используется указанное право на практике только в том случае, если возникают основания полагать, что МФО проводит сомнительные операции с точки зрения ПОД/ФТ. В определенных ситуациях заградительные тарифы могут также быть эффективным механизмом борьбы с легализацией, например, высокая комиссия при операциях на крупные суммы».

Правозащитники считают, что отношения МФО и операторов по приему платежей не должны влиять на заемщиков. «Способы погашения займа оказывают влияние на выбор потребителем кредитора, одностороннее изменение их снижает качество финансовой услуги, делая возможным взимание повышенной комиссии «непартнером» кредитора или отказ от обслуживания потребителя»,— отмечает юрист «Финпотребсоюза» Алексей Драч. Кроме того, изменение способа погашения займов в одностороннем порядке чревато для заемщиков существенным ростом суммы долга, указывают эксперты. «Если клиент из-за одностороннего изменения способов погашения не смог своевременно внести платеж привычным способом, у него может возникнуть просрочка и, как следствие, штраф со стороны МФО»,— уверен председатель коллегии адвокатов «Старинский, Корчаго и партнеры» Евгений Корчаго. На сегодняшний день штрафы МФО за несвоевременный возврат займа могут составлять до 20% годовых. По словам господина Корчаго, в описанной ситуации заемщику следует подавать жалобы в Роспотребнадзор и ЦБ, кроме того, он имеет все основания оспорить увеличение долга в суде.

Источник: kommersant.ru

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