В споре о справедливом курсе Верховный суд встал на сторону банков

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В споре о справедливом курсе Верховный суд встал на сторону банков

Фото:
Дмитрий Лебедев /

Коммерсантъ

Для создания единообразия по спорам банков с валютными ипотечными заемщиками Верховный суд (ВС) высказал свою позицию в «Обзоре арбитражной практики». Она сводит на нет попытки заемщиков в суде пересмотреть условия договора из-за существенного ослабления рубля к основным валютам. Теперь валютным ипотечникам остается лишь договариваться с банками или добиваться решения проблемы на правительственном уровне.

Верховный суд обнародовал «Обзор арбитражной практики Верховного суда» N1 (2017), в котором в том числе рассмотрел вопрос обоснованности требований заемщиков по конвертации валютных ипотечных кредитов в рубли по курсу, действовавшему на момент выдачи кредита. «Возврат суммы займа должен быть произведен, исходя из валюты займа, указанной в договоре. Риск изменения курса валюты долга лежит на заемщике»,— заключил ВС.

К таким выводам ВС пришел в рамках анализа дела заемщицы Тембр-банка госпожи Иванчиковой, взявшей ипотеку в 2013 году на сумму €1 млн. Она требовала внести изменения в кредитный договор, позволяющие ей гасить валютную ипотеку в рублях по тому курсу, по которому она ее брала. Основной аргумент — существенный скачок курса валюты за незначительный период времени, который нельзя отнести к разряду колебаний. По данным Банка России, на 8 июля 2013 года, когда госпожа Иванчикова оформляла ипотеку, курс евро составлял — 42,83 руб./€, вчера — 61,45 руб./€. Дополнительными аргументами была многодетность заемщицы и увольнение с работы в 2014 году. Суды первой и апелляционной инстанции сочли ее доводы убедительными и обязали банк изменить договор.

Однако Верховный суд рассудил иначе. «Возврат суммы займа по более низкому курсу, чем текущий, означает возврат суммы займа не в полном размере, что нарушает имущественные права заимодавца»,— отмечается в обзоре ВС.

«Установив фиксированный курс в рублях, суд фактически заменил договор займа в иностранной валюте договором займа в рублях, но по ставке, предусмотренной для займа в иностранной валюте. Внося изменения в заключенный между банком и истцом кредитный договор, суд, по существу, возложил на ответчика, как на кредитора, риск изменения курса валюты долга и риск изменения имущественного положения истца как должника»,— делает вывод Верховный суд. В итоге ВС направил дело на новое рассмотрение, порекомендовав суду первой инстанции поискать у заемщицы иной доход или имущество, за счет которого и можно будет погасить кредит.

Выводы, сделанные судом, фактически лишают валютных заемщиков возможности конвертировать ранее полученные кредиты в рубли по льготному курсу по судебному решению. Ранее такие прецеденты были. «Обзоры практики, утвержденные президиумом, обязательной силы не имеют, но в силу авторитета ВС они обычно соблюдаются судами,— говорит адвокат из адвокатской консультации «Павлова и партнеры» Константин Савин.— Цель утверждения обзора практики — показать судам какой-то ориентир, как можно решить спор с конкретными обстоятельствами». В принципе подход ВС может измениться. «Обязательными для нижестоящих судов являются постановления президиума ВС, если они вынесены по конкретным делам в порядке надзора, после гражданской коллегии ВС»,— отмечает он. До этого уровня данное дело не дошло.

Однако в данном случае можно говорить об итоговой точке зрения ВС по таким спорам, считают юристы. «Это социально значимый вопрос, по которому позиция коллегии, скорее всего, отражает общую позицию ВС,— говорит господин Савин.— Не думаю, что эта позиция может быть пересмотрена, поскольку решение в пользу заемщика по валютной ипотеке может негативно сказаться на гражданско-правовом обороте. У банков посыпятся все остальные кредиты, в итоге это ударит не только по банкам, но и по их клиентам, включая вкладчиков, но нельзя перекладывать риски с одних граждан на других».

Масштабы проблемы не слишком велики. По итогам 2016 года доля валютных кредитов в РФ составляла всего 1,6% из общего объема ипотеки 4,5 трлн руб. Но сдаваться эти заемщики не намерены. «Даже если суды будут руководствоваться данной позицией ВС, мы будем продолжать судиться с банками, пусть не ради выигрыша, но ради затягивания процесса,— заявил активист движения валютных заемщиков Александр Александров.— В то же время мы намерены через органы власти добиваться пересмотра условий валютных ипотечных кредитов при существенном изменении курса».

Пока же конвертация валютной ипотеки в рубли по льготному курсу возможна лишь по воле банка. Банкиры обещают не отказываться от этой практики, несмотря на поддержку их ВС. «Юридически банки имеют полное право потребовать обратить взыскание на заложенное имущество,— отмечает директор департамента ипотечного кредитования ВТБ 24 Андрей Осипов.— Но в основном банки заинтересованы в урегулировании задолженности без обращения взыскания на залог и поэтому в разумных пределах идут навстречу заемщикам».

Источник: kommersant.ru

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