Верховный суд пресек практику избавления от карточных счетов

Верховный суд пресек практику избавления от карточных счетов

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Верховный суд пресек практику избавления от карточных счетов

Фото:
Олег Харсеев /
Коммерсантъ

Верховный суд (ВС) фактически запретил закрывать карточные счета, пока полностью не погашен долг по кредитке. Такой возможностью граждане пользовались, чтобы ограничить необдуманный рост кредитной нагрузки и избежать уплаты комиссий за обслуживание карт. Закрытие карточного счета никак не отражается на необходимости погашать долг, но не позволяет его увеличивать. Однако ВС решил, что кредит и карточный счет неразрывно связаны смешанным договором.

На днях было обнародовано определение Судебной коллегии по гражданским спорам Верховного суда, в котором суд указал на невозможность расторжения договора счета, если он был открыт в рамках выдачи кредитной карты, до полного погашения долга. Подобный спор дошел до коллегии впервые, ранее практика была противоречивой, отмечают юристы.

Такое решение было вынесено в рамках судебного разбирательства клиента с ВТБ 24. Клиент получил от банка кредитную карту с лимитом 1 млн руб. В апреле 2016 года заемщик потребовал от банка закрыть его счет, привязанный к карте (далее карточный счет), установив иной порядок погашения задолженности — через ссудный счет. Банк отказал, сославшись на то, что, согласно договору, счет может быть закрыт лишь после погашения долга. Задолженность заемщика по кредитке составляла 904 тыс. руб. Суд первой инстанции и апелляция поддержали клиента на том основании, что Гражданский кодекс и закон «О защите прав потребителей» позволяют закрывать счет в любой момент. Суды также указали, что закрытие счета не влияет на исполнение заемщиком кредитных обязательств.

Однако в Судебной коллегии отметили, что в данном случае имеет место смешанный договор — кредитный с договором открытия банковского счета (для выпуска карты.— «Ъ»). Стороны договорились, что расчеты по кредиту будут производиться через конкретный счет. Требование закрытия счета со стороны заемщика — по сути, это отказ от исполнения обязательств по договору, что недопустимо, заключили в суде, отправив дело на новое рассмотрение. Таким образом, Судебная коллегия поддержала ВТБ 24, который в суде настаивал, что банковский счет в случае кредитной карты не является самостоятельным продуктом.

Опрос банков показал, что подобные споры — не редкость. Для многих людей, рассуждают эксперты, закрытие счета напрямую связано с возможностью пользоваться заемными деньгами, той же кредитной картой. «Есть определенная категория клиентов, которые не могут удержаться от соблазна воспользоваться кредитной картой, если она есть,— отмечает председатель правления Международной конфедерации обществ потребления Дмитрий Янин.— В результате, несмотря на ежемесячное внесение платежей по кредитке, размер их задолженности не сокращается». В такой ситуации закрытие карточного счета фактически превращает кредитку в обычный кредит, он гасится через ссудный счет, с которого снять деньги нельзя, продолжает он. Если клиент долго пользуется картой, то отказ от карточного счета позволит избежать платы за годовое обслуживание (если банк ее взимает; практика может быть разная, в среднем — от 0 до 750 руб. в год).

Решение коллегии ВС лишает граждан возможности закрыть карточный счет и избавиться от необдуманных расходов. Впрочем, банкиры уверены, что большинство исков о закрытии карточных счетов граждане подают исходя из других мотивов. «На подобный шаг часто толкают клиентов банков недобросовестные юридические компании (так называемые раздолжнители), обещая полное прекращение обязательств по кредиту с момента закрытия счета,— отмечает зампред правления банка «Ренессанс Кредит» Сергей Королев.— Но это обман». Выигрыш подобного спора никак не влияет на кредитные обязательства клиента, отмечает директор департамента правового обеспечения ХКФ-банка Александр Гонтаренко. «Если клиент, введенный в заблуждение, выигрывает суд, закрывает счет и перестает гасить долг, то банк взыскивает долг путем подачи встречного иска о полном досрочном погашении кредита»,— поясняет господин Гонтаренко.

При этом банкиры указывают, что карточный счет открывается для удобства клиента и банка. «Если клиент закроет его по суду, ему придется гасить кредит непосредственно в отделении банка, через кассу внося средства сразу на ссудный счет, что неудобно»,— поясняет Сергей Королев. Определенные неудобства в этом случае испытывает и сам банк, поскольку счет необходим ему для аналитического учета просроченной задолженности, отметили в ВТБ 24.

Впрочем, как ему удобнее, клиент должен решать сам, считают эксперты. «Налицо навязанная услуга со стороны банка, открытие счета не связано напрямую с предметом договора»,— отметил Дмитрий Янин. «Физическое лицо, на мой взгляд, имеет право исполнить свое обязательство перед банком любым удобным для него способом, в том числе путем внесения средств на ссудный счет,— отмечает начальник юридического управления СДМ-банка Александр Голубев.— Важен сам факт исполнения обязательства, а не способ».

Источник: kommersant.ru

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blog that’s both equally educative and interesting, and let me tell you, you’ve hit the nail on the
head. The issue is something that too few people are speaking intelligently
about. I’m very happy that I stumbled across this during my search
for something relating to this.

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HTML. I’m starting a blog soon but have no
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Any help would be enormously appreciated!

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