Верховный суд пропишет правила погашения валютных кредитов

Верховный суд пропишет правила погашения валютных кредитов

Фото:
Павел Соловьев /

Коммерсантъ

На днях на рассмотрение судебной коллегии по экономическим спорам Верховного суда было передано дело о взыскании долга с поручителя по валютному кредиту. Коллизия спора в том, что с заемщика-банкрота банк требовал погашения в рублях на дату фиксирования задолженности, а к поручителю предъявлены требования в валюте кредита. Из-за девальвации эквивалент долга в рублях вырос на 25%. Данный судебный спор станет важнейшим прецедентом вне зависимости от того, чью сторону, банка или поручителя, примет суд, указывают юристы.

Информация о том, что судебная коллегия по экономическим спорам Верховного суда будет рассматривать спор банка и поручителя о том, в какой валюте гасить задолженность, размещена в картотеке Арбитражного суда. Иск с такой проблематикой доходит до рассмотрения экономической коллегии впервые и может существенно изменить сложившуюся практику по таким спорам, отмечают участники рынка. Решение по делу должно быть вынесено 13 апреля.

Суть спора в следующем. Альфа-банк требует с поручителя своего заемщика-банкрота погасить кредит, выданный в евро, по курсу спустя два года после образования задолженности. Ее размер на момент признания заемщика — компании «Лтех» —банкротом составляла €154,1 тыс., или 7,7 млн руб. Сумма была зафиксирована 18 апреля 2013 года. Не сумев добиться погашения от самого должника, Альфа-банк обратился с требованием к поручителю — компании «Подъемные технологии регион», но строго в валюте кредита — по курсу на вчерашний день долг бы составил 9,6 млн руб. Поручитель же счел, что его задолженность не может превышать размер долга заемщика, и требовал установить размер долга на уровне 7,7 млн руб. Первая инстанция, апелляция и кассация встали на сторону поручителя по кредиту, однако Верховный суд посчитал разумными доводы кредитора о том, что поручитель обязан гасить долг в валюте кредита. Как пояснили «Ъ» в пресс-службе Альфа-банка, долг поручителя в валюте не превышает долг заемщика. «А задолженность основного заемщика была зафиксирована в рублях в связи с тем, что это общество было признано банкротом». В банке добавили, что ООО «Подъемные технологии регион» банкротом не признавалось, поэтому требования Альфа-банка к компании были предъявлены в валюте кредитного договора, в соответствии с законодательством исполнение решения суда должно производиться в рублях по курсу ЦБ на дату фактического исполнения, т. е. на дату платежа.

Шансы на победу у Альфа-банка высоки, считают эксперты. «В данном споре перевод задолженности заемщика в рубли носит технический характер, только для включения в реестр, и не влияет на обязательства поручителя»,— рассуждает руководитель правового блока Промсвязьбанка Лариса Валуева. С ней согласен и управляющий партнер «Ренессанс Lex» Георгий Хурошвили. «Нельзя произвольно менять размер и порядок исполнения обязательств поручителя,— указывает он.— Долг изначально в евро, а поручительство — это сделка, зависимая от основной, и потому также должна исполняться в евро». При этом правовая коллизия налицо, отмечает председатель коллегии адвокатов «Старинский, Корчаго и партнеры» Евгений Корчаго. «С одной стороны, долг поручителя не должен превышать задолженность заемщика, с другой — свобода договора, в котором прямо предусмотрена ответственность поручителя в валюте».

Данный судебный спор станет важнейшим прецедентом вне зависимости от того, чью сторону, банка или поручителя, примет суд, уверены эксперты. «Полагаю, что данный спор войдет в обзор пленума ВС (вне зависимости от решения экономколлегии) для унификации судебной практики по подобным вопросам»,— отметил Евгений Корчаго. И заемщикам в будущем следует обратить на это решение особое внимание. «В данном случае поручитель взял на себя определенные валютные риски, став поручителем по договору в валюте»,— указывает заместитель председателя правления Ланта-банка Дмитрий Шевченко.

Источник: kommersant.ru

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