Вместе с заемщиками риски перешли от банков в МФО

Вместе с заемщиками риски перешли от банков в МФО

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Виктор Коротаев /

Коммерсантъ

В прошлом году число ссуд с признаками мошенничества выросло вдвое по сравнению с 2015 годом, следует из данных НБКИ. Такой рост выглядит парадоксально на фоне ужесточения кредиторами подходов к рискам. Однако именно закручивание гаек банками привело заемщиков, а вместе с ними и мошенников на микрофинансовый рынок, где проверка информации не такая строгая. При этом эксперты сходятся во мнении, что в ближайшем будущем тенденция сохранится.

Вчера Национальное бюро кредитных историй (НБКИ, входит в тройку крупнейших) опубликовало данные, свидетельствующие о резком росте мошенничества со стороны заемщиков. К ссудам с признаками мошенничества в НБКИ относят те, по которым отсутствует первый платеж (first payment default, FPD). Их количество, по данным НБКИ, в 2016 году выросло на 69,5% — до 1,01 млн шт. В общем объеме выданных ссуд в прошлом году доля кредитов с признаками мошенничества выросла до 3,4% (в 2015 году, по данным НБКИ, она составляла 2,3%). «В 2016 году зафиксирована резкая активизация кредитного мошенничества,— говорит генеральный директор НБКИ Александр Викулин.— При этом мы отмечаем смену тактики мошенников — атаки направлены в основном на небольших кредиторов и МФО».

Согласны с такими выводами и в одном из крупнейших БКИ — «Эквифаксе». Там отмечают, что при расчете показателя FPD целесообразно анализировать рынок по источникам предоставления кредитов/займов. «Анализ данного показателя в банковской среде свидетельствует о том, что в этом секторе ситуация довольно стабильная — три года подряд количество кредитов с ранней просроченной задолженностью неуклонно снижается,— говорит гендиректор «Эквифакса» Олег Лагуткин.— Среди МФО ситуация обратная». В Объединенном кредитном бюро (ОКБ) сообщили, что не видят тенденции по росту мошенничества. Но тут считают иначе этот показатель. «Мы придерживаемся более консервативного мнения: к мошенническим кредитам относятся те, по которым не было внесено ни одного платежа в течение четырех месяцев с момента выдачи кредита»,— отметили в БКИ. Так что расхождение цифр вполне объяснимо. НБКИ, «Эквифакс» и ОКБ консолидируют более 95% всей информации о кредитных историях граждан.

Опрошенные «Ъ» банкиры согласны с доводами представителей БКИ. На банковском рынке роста мошеннических кредитов нет. «Насколько я знаю, данный показатель не растет ни в одном из крупных розничных банков»,— отметил зампред правления ХКФ-банка Артем Алешкин.

Впрочем, и роста кредитования там тоже нет. Так, по данным ЦБ за 2016 год, объем необеспеченных розничных кредитов (именно по ним в основном совершаются мошеннические действия со стороны заемщиков) сократился на 3,1%. В то же время, по данным ЦБ, только за девять месяцев прошлого года (более поздние данные недоступны) портфель займов МФО вырос на 22% — до 85,5 млрд руб., а число заемщиков МФО по итогам третьего квартала 2016 года увеличилось на 40%, до 4,7 млн человек.

МФО, в отличие от банков, фиксируют рост мошеннических действий заемщиков. «Доля заявок, отклоненных по причине возможного мошенничества (от всех заявок, поступивших в «Е заем»), в 2016 году составила 1,14%, в 2015 году этот показатель составил 0,76%, то есть за год вырос в полтора раза — отмечает управляющий директор сервиса онлайн-кредитования «Е заем» Лига Трупа.— Очевидно, причина увеличения доли таких заявок в росте популярности онлайн-займов — за 2016 год объем их выдачи вырос на 104%». «Онлайн-займы все еще не так привычны для россиян, и многим по-прежнему кажется, что получить и не вернуть деньги в интернете легко»,— резюмировала она.

Представители рынка БКИ призывают МФО активнее внедрять сервисы защиты от мошенничеств. Впрочем, микрофинансисты закладывают подобные риски в стоимость займов, и до тех пор, когда использование качественного скоринга станет нормой на микрофинансовом рынке, еще далеко, указывают эксперты. «Рост кредитов с признаками мошенничеств неизбежен, поскольку МФО стремятся наращивать онлайн-кредитования, не обладая необходимыми технологиями,— отметил глава оператора кредитно-страховых услуг «Юником 24″ Юрий Кудряков.— Я могу назвать лишь два-три МФО, кто обладает должным уровнем верификации, у остальных же технологии далеко не идеальны». И сейчас, получая массовые отказы по кредитам от банков, клиенты идут в МФО. В геометрической прогрессии увеличивается количество займов, а значит, в той же прогрессии будет рост ссуд с признаками мошенничества, заключает господин Кудряков.

Источник: kommersant.ru

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