ВС оставил граждан без переплат по досрочно погашенным кредитам

ВС оставил граждан без переплат по досрочно погашенным кредитам

Фото:
Олег Харсеев /

Коммерсантъ

В судебной практике взыскания заемщиками с банков процентов по кредиту, излишне, по мнению граждан, уплаченных при его досрочном погашении, наметился перелом. Верховный суд (ВС) пришел к выводу, что требовать пересчета уже уплаченных процентов исходя из реального срока погашения — значит менять первоначальные условия кредитования. Эксперты считают, что при таком подходе у заемщиков должна быть возможность выбора порядка погашения кредита — аннуитетного или прямого, чего на практике почти нет.

На днях коллегия по гражданским делам ВС вынесла определение, которое может стать переломным в практике споров о начислении процентов при досрочном погашении кредитов. О данном деле «Ъ» рассказали собеседники, присутствовавшие на судебном заседании. Клиентка банка ВТБ 24 досрочно погасила ипотечный кредит в размере 1,4 млн руб. за 53 месяца вместо изначально оговоренных в договоре 302 месяцев и требовала в суде возмещения излишне уплаченных процентов по кредиту. Кредит гасился аннуитетными (равными) платежами. При таком способе погашения в первые годы большую часть платежа составляют проценты по кредиту, и только спустя два-три года соотношение тела долга и процентов в платеже смещается в пользу долга. Воспользовавшись кредитным калькулятором, заемщица подсчитала, что если бы изначально брала кредит на 53 месяца, то уплатила бы на 205 тыс. руб. процентов меньше.

В первой инстанции клиентка проиграла, однако апелляция ее поддержала. В итоге спор дошел до Верховного суда, который передал дело коллегии по гражданским делам. Шансы банка на разворот ситуации были невелики. Ранее в аналогичных ситуациях (споры со Сбербанком, СКБ-банком, банком «Открытие» в 2014-2016 годах) ВС всегда становился на сторону заемщиков.

Однако в данном случае коллегия ВС изменила подход — доводы банка были признаны обоснованными.

Описывая обстоятельства дела, представители ВТБ 24 указывали на неправильный «математический» расчет истца. Как рассказал присутствовавший на судебном заседании собеседник «Ъ», представители банка вместе с судьями на примере конкретного займа пошагово просчитали суммы процентов, доказав, что банк берет проценты исходя только из срока фактического пользования кредитом. Суд пришел к выводу, что если бы заемщица изначально брала кредит по указанной ставке на нужный срок (как она считала на кредитном калькуляторе), то и размер ежемесячного платежа у нее был бы существенно больше.

Основная проблема при рассмотрении подобных дел связана со сложностью расчета аннуитетных платежей, указывают эксперты. «Зачастую в кредитных договорах банки указывают сложные формулы для расчета ежемесячных аннуитетных платежей (как и в приведенном споре), где в том числе участвует показатель «количество месяцев, оставшихся до срока окончания действия договора»,— объясняет руководитель юридического отдела компании «МЭФ-аудит» Александр Овеснов.— В связи с этим заемщики и суды иногда приходят к выводу, что уплачивают проценты по кредиту авансом. В действительности же в большинстве случаев проценты, уплачиваемые заемщиком по текущим платежам до момента досрочного возврата кредита, включают в себя плату только за срок фактического пользования кредитом».

По информации, опубликованной на сайте Верховного суда, в настоящее время на рассмотрении суда находится еще как минимум три аналогичных спора. В ВТБ 24 надеются на аналогичные решения, сообщили в банке. По мнению юриста СДМ-банка Александра Голубева, изменение позиции Верховного суда крайне важно для рынка. «Честно говоря, предыдущие решения ВС меня удивляли,— говорит господин Голубев.— Видимо, представители банков не могли убедить суд, что при аннуитетных платежах проценты за будущие периоды не взимаются, просто основной долг по кредиту гасится медленнее».

«Реакция банков предсказуема, однако клиент в данном случае оказывается в ущемленном положении»,— считает председатель правления Международной конфедерации обществ потребления Дмитрий Янин. «На практике клиенты часто не понимают порядок расчета платежей, а кроме того, не могут влиять на порядок погашения кредита,— указывает председатель комитета по финансовым рынкам Госдумы Анатолий Аксаков.— В то же время считаю правильным, чтобы клиенту банка дать возможность выбора — платить аннуитетные или прямые платежи». Во втором случае основной долг и проценты погашаются в равных долях в каждом платеже, проценты начисляются по фактическому остатку, а каждый последующий платеж меньше предыдущего. На первых порах при прямом (дифференцированном) подходе сумма платежа при прочих равных условиях больше, чем при аннуитетном. Ранее банки использовали оба варианта, но сейчас практически отказались от практики прямых платежей.

Источник: kommersant.ru

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