Перевод машино-мест в статус недвижимости: покупателям пора задуматься

Перевод машино-мест в статус недвижимости: покупателям пора задуматься

Почему подземные парковки в новостройках стоят полупустыми

Перевод машино-мест в статус недвижимости: покупателям пора задуматься
фото: Геннадий Черкасов

Вернули статус

В начале этого века машино-места в подземных паркингах были полноправными объектами гражданско-правовых отношений. Особенно бойко торговля этим недвижимым имуществом шла в крупных городах. Но в 2011 году законодатели фактически вывели их из оборота.

С нового года потерянный статус вернули: 1 января вступил в силу 315-ФЗ «О внесении изменений в ч. 1 ГК РФ…». Теперь любой дееспособный гражданин может легально продать, купить, арендовать, передать по наследству и заложить парковку.

Площадка считается машино-местом, когда она предназначена только для размещения, хранения транспорта и неразрывно связана с объектом — домом, зданием или постройкой. Ранее граждане могли зарегистрировать только бокс или гараж. С выходом нового закона проблема отпадает. Теперь собственник может оформить площадку без капитальных ограждений или стен. Владельцы общей долевой собственности могут без препятствий выделить машино-места в натуре, установить их границы с помощью специальной краски или даже наклеек.

«Границы определяются кадастровыми инженерами. По результатам межевого дела машино-место ставится на кадастровый учет и регистрируется в Росреестре, — пояснил глава Гильдии юристов рынка недвижимости Олег Сухов. — Процедура та же, что и с квартирами и иными объектами недвижимости, в том числе нежилыми помещениями и земельными участками. Машино-место — это объект нежилой недвижимости, который поставлен на кадастровый учет и зарегистрирован. Для его оформления необязательно, чтобы машино-место имело стены, как, например, гаражи. Главное, чтобы на месте границы были очерчены».

Парковки во дворах, на обочинах дорог и даже на отдельных стоянках, которые никак не связаны со зданиями и сооружениями, государство не осмелилось признать недвижимостью. «Теоретически собственник земельного участка не лишен возможности парковочные места переоформить в машино-места по всем правилам, но подобной деятельностью никто не занимается: денег и времени занимает много, а отдачи никакой. В некоторых случаях это невозможно, например, если земля арендованная (рядом с торговыми центрами) или муниципальная (рядом с многоквартирными домами)», — сообщил Сухов. По мнению юриста, возвращенный порядок в отношении машино-мест как объектов недвижимости упростит все сделки с ними, сократит сроки регистрации до 7 рабочих дней и несколько увеличит их рыночную и инвестиционную привлекательность.

«После того как места на парковках признаны самостоятельными объектами в долевом строительстве, уровень доверия потенциальных покупателей повысился. Сделки с паркингами стали прозрачнее», — отметили в Минстрое. Не секрет, что в крупных городах подземные паркинги в новостройках плохо продавались именно из-за неопределенности их правового статуса. Теперь этот барьер устранен, надеются в министерстве.

Налоговый стимул

Еще одна причина новаций — пополнение бюджета. Понятно, чем больше парковочных мест обретут хозяев, тем больше будет налогооблагаемая база. По данным ФНС, в конце 2016 года в собственности москвичей было зарегистрировано более 200 тыс. гаражей и машино-мест. По подсчетам АЦ корпорации «Инком», сейчас в разной стадии готовности находится 1 тыс. жилых комплексов, а в среднем количество машино-мест на ЖК составляет 200–300 штук. Таким образом, столичный организованный рынок можно оценить в 400–500 тыс. мест для парковки. Посчитать точное количество паркингов в Белокаменной невозможно. Ведь подавляющее большинство подземных, наземных и плоскостных парковок не оформлены в собственность, а значит, не зарегистрированы.

Поэтому в последнее время правила игры на рынке парковок постоянно смягчаются. Например, в конце прошлого года столичные власти в 20 раз снизили налоговую нагрузку для владельцев машино-мест, расположенных в офисных и торговых центрах. Теперь физлица платят налог на имущество по минимальной ставке — 0,1% от ее кадастровой стоимости, хотя ранее для них была ставка 2%. Льгота распространяется только на один гараж или машино-место площадью не более 25 кв. м. Власти стимулируют граждан активнее регистрировать свое недвижимое имущество.

И хочется, и колется

Но расчет властей увеличить число налогоплательщиков пока не оправдался. Упрощение процедуры оформления в собственность парковок в жилых новостройках и льготы не привели к оживлению спроса на машино-места в Москве.

В ряде крупных проектов массовой застройки спрос на подземные паркинги в новостройках по-прежнему невысокий. Например, только 20% многоуровневых парковок выкуплено в одном из крупнейших в Москве ЖК, расположенном в Бирюлеве Восточном. Два уровня подземных этажей стоят пустыми. При этом во дворах машину после 17.00 уже не припарковать. Причина — заоблачная цена на подземное машино-место. Да и за его охрану придется раскошелиться: в том же Бирюлеве Восточном нужно платить около 3 тыс. руб. с учетом банковской комиссии.

Цены на парковки в зависимости от класса жилья и надземного либо подземного расположения паркинга варьируются от 250 тыс. до 7 млн руб. Для сравнения: за 6–7 млн руб. в Москве ближе к МКАД можно купить квартиру площадью 35–40 кв. м.

По данным АКЦ EstaTet, в массовом сегменте в Москве средняя цена машино-места составляет 1,6 млн руб., минимальная — 300 тыс. руб., максимальная — 4 млн руб. При одновременной покупке квартиры и машино-места есть шанс получить на него скидку от застройщика. В бизнес-классе средняя цена составляет 2,7 млн руб. за машино-место. Минимальная цена — 1,165 млн руб., максимальная — 5,1 млн руб. В более дорогих сегментах средняя цена — 4,8 млн руб. за машино-место. Минимальная цена составляет 2,5 млн руб., максимальная — 8,8 млн руб. В элитных ЖК, особенно в пределах Садового кольца, парковки стоят более 10 млн руб.

По мнению экспертов, спрос на столичные подземные и наземные паркинги в новостройках можно стимулировать несколькими мерами. Среди них — развитие ипотечного кредитования сделок с машино-местами, увеличение зоны платной парковки, льготы для управляющих компаний и, конечно, скидки на машино-места для покупателей жилья.

Платные парковки. Хроника событий

Источник: mk.ru

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