Россияне беднеют четвертый год подряд: почему падают реальные доходы населения

Россияне беднеют четвертый год подряд: почему падают реальные доходы населения

Бесконечный минус

Россияне беднеют четвертый год подряд: почему падают реальные доходы населения
фото: Алексей Меринов

Население продолжает беднеть: в июле зафиксировано снижение реальных доходов россиян на 0,9% по сравнению с тем же месяцем прошлого года и на 3,1% по сравнению с июнем 2017 года. Между тем в июне впервые за три последних года доходы оказались не в минусе, а на нуле. И на фоне зафиксированного Росстатом июльского роста ВВП появилась надежда, что реальные доходы населения пусть потихоньку, но все-таки начнут прибавлять. И это уже можно было бы трактовать как настоящее начало выхода из кризиса — причем не в макроэкономическом, а в обычном, человеческом измерении. Но не случилось: июльская статистика безжалостно зафиксировала: падение продолжается!

Возникает вопрос: почему, если вся экономика переживает некий подъем, население по-прежнему остается в… скажем так, минусе? Попробуем разобраться.

Напомним, что реальные располагаемые денежные доходы населения — это номинальные доходы за вычетом обязательных платежей с поправкой на уровень инфляции. Главный наш доход — это, естественно, заработные платы. И они, если верить статистике, увеличиваются. Номинальная среднемесячная заработная плата в июле достигла 39 355 рублей. Рост за год — 3%. Что само по себе неплохо, но беда в том, что весь этот плюс съедает инфляция, которая хоть и находится на рекордно низком уровне, но все-таки перевешивает скромный рост зарплат.

И пенсии в реальном выражении тоже ушли в минус. Этот тезис, наверное, может вызвать недоумение: как же так, ведь правительство уже провело индексацию страховой части пенсий на размер прошлогодней инфляции. Однако все дело в том, что в январе власти «осчастливили» стариков единовременной выплатой пятитысячной компенсации взамен индексации по инфляции, пропущенной в 2016 году. С учетом того, что средний размер пенсии в России не дотягивает и до 13 тысяч в месяц, январская прибавка в пять тысяч рублей оказалась настоящим Эверестом для пенсионной статистики. Естественно, во все последующие месяцы фиксировалось падение реальных пенсионных выплат относительно января.

Наконец, еще один удар по реальным располагаемым денежным доходам россиян нанесли возросшие за последний год налоги, относящиеся к обязательным платежам, на размер которых корректируются номинальные доходы. Чего стоит только резко выросший за этот период налог на недвижимость, который теперь считается не по оценкам БТИ, а по кадастровой (то есть рыночной) стоимости жилья!

Все эти факторы вместе и превращают номинальный плюс в доходах в реальный минус в кошельках. Статистика печальна: реальные доходы граждан страны сокращаются уже четвертый год подряд. В 2014 году снижение составило 0,7%, в 2015 году — 3,2%, в 2016 году — 5,9%. За весь этот долгий период был единственный месяц, когда доходы не упали, а выросли (причем весьма заметно, на 8,1%), — январь 2017 года. И произошло это благодаря… да-да, той самой единовременной выплате 5 тысяч рублей миллионам наших пенсионеров.

Из этого вытекает простой вывод: рост реальных доходов населения произойдет лишь тогда, когда государство изыщет средства на новые масштабные индексации зарплат бюджетникам или пенсий старикам.

Именно так в нашей стране и происходило в «тучные» нулевые годы, когда федеральный бюджет ломился от шальных нефтедолларов, притекающих в него на фоне бурно дорожающего «черного золота». Доходы казны тогда заметно превышали расходы, и за счет этого власти спокойно могли проводить для миллионов бюджетников стабильные индексации, повышая тем самым уровень доходов населения в целом.

Но эта лафа осталась в прошлом. После драматического падения цены барреля во второй половине 2014 года бюджет остается дефицитным. Дыра в нем по итогам первого полугодия 2017-го составляет около 425 млрд рублей, или 0,8% ВВП. Следовательно, денег на всевозможные компенсации и индексации правительству брать неоткуда, дай бог существующие обязательства перед бюджетниками и пенсионерами выполнить…

А значит, и ждать роста реальных доходов граждан в ближайшей перспективе нет никаких оснований. Экономический кризис для российского населения продолжается: завтра будет хуже, чем вчера.

Рост цен и падение рубля. Хроника событий

Источник: mk.ru

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